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1493

By Charles C. Mann
  • Writer : Charles C. Mann
  • Isbn : 0307596729
  • Publisher : Vintage
  • Number of Pages : 544
  • Category : History
  • Review Counts : 376
  • Book Compatibility : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Pdf : 1493.pdf

Summaries of Book :

From the author of 1491—the best-selling study of the pre-Columbian Americas—a deeply engaging new history of the most momentous biological event since the death of the dinosaurs. More than 200 million years ago, geological forces split apart the continents. Isolated from each other, the two halves of the world developed radically different suites of plants and animals. When Christopher Columbus set foot in the Americas, he ended that separation at a stroke. Driven by the economic goal of establishing trade with China, he accidentally set off an ecological convulsion as European vessels carried thousands of species to new homes across the oceans. The Columbian Exchange, as researchers call it, is the reason there are tomatoes in Italy, oranges in Florida, chocolates in Switzerland, and chili peppers in Thailand. More important, creatures the colonists knew nothing about hitched along for the ride. Earthworms, mosquitoes, and cockroaches; honeybees, dandelions, and African grasses; bacteria, fungi, and viruses; rats of every description—all of them rushed like eager tourists into lands that had never seen their like before, changing lives and landscapes across the planet. Eight decades after Columbus, a Spaniard named Legazpi succeeded where Columbus had failed. He sailed west to establish continual trade with China, then the richest, most powerful country in the world. In Manila, a city Legazpi founded, silver from the Americas, mined by African and Indian slaves, was sold to Asians in return for silk for Europeans. It was the first time that goods and people from every corner of the globe were connected in a single worldwide exchange. Much as Columbus created a new world biologically, Legazpi and the Spanish empire he served created a new world economically. As Charles C. Mann shows, the Columbian Exchange underlies much of subsequent human history. Presenting the latest research by ecologists, anthropologists, archaeologists, and historians, Mann shows how the creation of this worldwide network of ecological and economic exchange fostered the rise of Europe, devastated imperial China, convulsed Africa, and for two centuries made Mexico City—where Asia, Europe, and the new frontier of the Americas dynamically interacted—the center of the world. In such encounters, he uncovers the germ of today’s fiercest political disputes, from immigration to trade policy to culture wars. In 1493, Charles Mann gives us an eye-opening scientific interpretation of our past, unequaled in its authority and fascination.

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  • Pdf File: the-sage-international-encyclopedia-of-travel-and-tourism.pdf

Book Excerpt:

Taking a global and multidisciplinary approach, The SAGE International Encyclopedia of Travel and Tourism brings together a team of international scholars to examine the travel and tourism industry, which is expected to grow at an annual rate of four percent for the next decade. In more than 500 entries spanning four comprehensive volumes, the Encyclopedia examines the business of tourism around the world paying particular attention to the social, economic, environmental, and policy issues at play. The book examines global, regional, national, and local issues including transportation, infrastructure, the environment, and business promotion. By looking at travel trends and countries large and small, the Encyclopedia analyses a wide variety of challenges and opportunities facing the industry. In taking a comprehensive and global approach, the Encyclopedia approaches the field of travel and tourism through the numerous disciplines it reaches, including the traditional tourism administration curriculum within schools of business and management, economics, public policy, as well as social science disciplines such as the anthropology and sociology. Key features include: More than 500 entries authored and signed by key academics in the field Entries on individual countries that details the health of the tourism industry, policy and planning approaches, promotion efforts, and primary tourism draws. Additional entries look at major cities and popular destinations Coverage of travel trends such as culinary tourism, wine tourism, agritourism, ecotourism, geotourism, slow tourism, heritage and cultural-based tourism, sustainable tourism, and recreation-based tourism Cross-references and further readings A Reader’s Guide grouping articles by disciplinary areas and broad themes

A History of Global Consumption

By Ina Baghdiantz McCabe
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Isbn Code : 1317652657
  • Number of Pages : 302
  • Category : History
  • Reviews : 225
  • Pdf File: a-history-of-global-consumption.pdf

Book Excerpt:

In A History of Global Consumption: 1500 – 1800, Ina Baghdiantz McCabe examines the history of consumption throughout the early modern period using a combination of chronological and thematic discussion, taking a comprehensive and wide-reaching view of a subject that has long been on the historical agenda. The title explores the topic from the rise of the collector in Renaissance Europe to the birth of consumption as a political tool in the eighteenth century. Beginning with an overview of the history of consumption and the major theorists, such as Bourdieu, Elias and Barthes, who have shaped its development as a field, Baghdiantz McCabe approaches the subject through a clear chronological framework. Supplemented by illlustrations in every chapter and ranging in scope from an analysis of the success of American commodities such as tobacco, sugar and chocolate in Europe and Asia to a discussion of the Dutch tulip mania, A History of Global Consumption: 1500 – 1800 is the perfect guide for all students interested in the social, cultural and economic history of the early modern period.

Lees' Loss Prevention in the Process Industries

By Frank Lees
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Butterworth-Heinemann
  • Isbn Code : 0123977827
  • Number of Pages : 3776
  • Category : Technology & Engineering
  • Reviews : 638
  • Pdf File: lees-loss-prevention-in-the-process-industries.pdf

Book Excerpt:

Safety in the process industries is critical for those who work with chemicals and hazardous substances or processes. The field of loss prevention is, and continues to be, of supreme importance to countless companies, municipalities and governments around the world, and Lees’ is a detailed reference to defending against hazards. Recognized as the standard work for chemical and process engineering safety professionals, it provides the most complete collection of information on the theory, practice, design elements, equipment, regulations and laws covering the field of process safety. An entire library of alternative books (and cross-referencing systems) would be needed to replace or improve upon it, but everything of importance to safety professionals, engineers and managers can be found in this all-encompassing three volume reference instead. The process safety encyclopedia, trusted worldwide for over 30 years Now available in print and online, to aid searchability and portability Over 3,600 print pages cover the full scope of process safety and loss prevention, compiling theory, practice, standards, legislation, case studies and lessons learned in one resource as opposed to multiple sources

Pediatric Neurology

By Olivier Dulac,Maryse Lassonde,Harvey B. Sarnat
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Newnes
  • Isbn Code : 0444626980
  • Number of Pages : 892
  • Category : Medical
  • Reviews : 852
  • Pdf File: pediatric-neurology.pdf

Book Excerpt:

The child is neither an adult miniature nor an immature human being: at each age, it expresses specific abilities that optimize adaptation to its environment and development of new acquisitions. Diseases in children cover all specialties encountered in adulthood, and neurology involves a particularly large area, ranging from the brain to the striated muscle, the generation and functioning of which require half the genes of the whole genome and a majority of mitochondrial ones. Human being nervous system is sensitive to prenatal aggression, is particularly immature at birth and development may be affected by a whole range of age-dependent disorders distinct from those that occur in adults. Even diseases more often encountered in adulthood than childhood may have specific expression in the developing nervous system. The course of chronic neurological diseases beginning before adolescence remains distinct from that of adult pathology – not only from the cognitive but also motor perspective, right into adulthood, and a whole area is developing for adult neurologists to care for these children with persisting neurological diseases when they become adults. Just as pediatric neurology evolved as an identified specialty as the volume and complexity of data became too much for the general pediatician or the adult neurologist to master, the discipline has now continued to evolve into so many subspecialties, such as epilepsy, neuromuscular disease, stroke, malformations, neonatal neurology, metabolic diseases, etc., that the general pediatric neurologist no longer can reasonably possess in-depth expertise in all areas, particularly in dealing with complex cases. Subspecialty expertise thus is provided to some trainees through fellowship programmes following a general pediatric neurology residency and many of these fellowships include training in research. Since the infectious context, the genetic background and medical practice vary throughout the world, this diversity needs to be represented in a pediatric neurology textbook. Taken together, and although brain malformations (H. Sarnat & P. Curatolo, 2007) and oncology (W. Grisold & R. Soffietti) are covered in detail in other volumes of the same series and therefore only briefly addressed here, these considerations justify the number of volumes, and the number of authors who contributed from all over the world. Experts in the different subspecialties also contributed to design the general framework and contents of the book. Special emphasis is given to the developmental aspect, and normal development is reminded whenever needed – brain, muscle and the immune system. The course of chronic diseases into adulthood and ethical issues specific to the developing nervous system are also addressed. A volume in the Handbook of Clinical Neurology series, which has an unparalleled reputation as the world's most comprehensive source of information in neurology International list of contributors including the leading workers in the field Describes the advances which have occurred in clinical neurology and the neurosciences, their impact on the understanding of neurological disorders and on patient care

Fishers' Craft and Lettered Art

By Richard C. Hoffmann
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : University of Toronto Press
  • Isbn Code : 1487586787
  • Number of Pages :
  • Category : History
  • Reviews : 628
  • Pdf File: fishers-craft-and-lettered-art.pdf

Book Excerpt:

Fishers' Craft and Lettered Art provides editions, English translations, and analysis from social, cultural, and environmental perspectives of the three oldest European extended tracts on fishing. Richard Hoffmann discusses the history of fishing in popular culture and outlines the economic and ecologic considerations needed to examine and understand the fishing manuals. Hoffmann further explores how continental fishing traditions were conveyed from oral craft practice into printed culture, and proposes that these manuals demonstrate a lively and complex interaction between written texts and popular culture. The tracts are presented in their original languages - Spanish and German - with facing page translations. Close attention is paid to original setting, functions, and possible range of readings, with detailed explanatory notes to help modern fishers and historians. Fishers' Craft and Lettered Art is a fascinating look at one vital aspect of everyday life at the end of the Middle Ages.

Conventional Versus Non-conventional Political Participation in Turkey

By Cristiano Bee,Ayhan Kaya
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Isbn Code : 1351266950
  • Number of Pages : 214
  • Category : Social Science
  • Reviews : 678
  • Pdf File: conventional-versus-non-conventional-political-participation-in-turkey.pdf

Book Excerpt:

This book focuses on the emergence of different forms of civic and political activism in Turkey. It has taken into account different components of active citizenship, specifically looking at the development of civic and political forms of activism that bridge the realms of conventional and non-conventional participation. Focusing on the effects of the 2013 Gezi Park protests—which originated in Istanbul but spread throughout the country—this book reflects on how this experience might re-orient current on civic and political participation in Turkey. Specifically focusing on the main dynamics of non-conventional forms of civic and political activism, this volume attempts to understand the impact of non-conventional forms of political participation on voting behaviour. The internal domestic conditions of the country, as well as its role in the international arena, have dramatically changed since 2013, and are constantly evolving due to the domestic societal and political cleavages, and the regional problems in the Middle East. Yet, the papers in the book reflect upon the significance of occupygezi nowadays, demonstrating not only its importance in questioning the link between the patrimonial state and its citizens, but also for stimulating participatory behaviours. The chapters originally published as a special issue in Turkish Studies.

The Mystery of the Blood Moons

By Ron Allen
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Charisma Media
  • Isbn Code : 1629984892
  • Number of Pages : 80
  • Category : Religion
  • Reviews : 641
  • Pdf File: the-mystery-of-the-blood-moons.pdf

Book Excerpt:

“The story of the stars is the story of the Creator Himself, told in His own words and pictures – and painted with fire across the expanse of the universe.”

Europe, Middle East, and North Africa Region Population Projections

By My T. Vu,Eduard R. Bos,Rodolfo A. Bulatao
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : World Bank Publications
  • Isbn Code : N.a
  • Number of Pages : 231
  • Category : Africa, North
  • Reviews : 701
  • Pdf File: europe-middle-east-and-north-africa-region-population-projections.pdf

Book Excerpt:

Read and download full book Europe, Middle East, and North Africa Region Population Projections

From Chiefs to Landlords

By Dodgshon Robert Dodgshon
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Edinburgh University Press
  • Isbn Code : 1474467784
  • Number of Pages : 320
  • Category : Electronic books
  • Reviews : 802
  • Pdf File: from-chiefs-to-landlords.pdf

Book Excerpt:

This new approach to Highland history before the Clearances draws attention to little-studied yet important economic and social processes within the Highland clan system and argues that we should consider the problems of traditional Highland society, economy and environment together. Exploring how the different aspects of the clan system - chiefs and kinsmen, landlords and tenants, farming systems, production strategies and marketing - changed between the 16th-18th centuries, it shows how the character and ideology of clans and chiefdoms are inextricably part of the twin problems of socio-political control and food production. Shifting the emphasis away from depictions of Highland society as lawless and disorganised, this is a welcome antidote to the many romanticised views of pre-Clearance society. Prize Winner! Honorable Mention - Frank Watson Scottish History Prize 1999

Veterinary Medicine - E-BOOK

By Peter D. Constable,Kenneth W Hinchcliff,Stanley H. Done,Walter Gruenberg
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
  • Isbn Code : 0702070580
  • Number of Pages : 2278
  • Category : Medical
  • Reviews : 265
  • Pdf File: veterinary-medicine-e-book.pdf

Book Excerpt:

Treat the diseases affecting large animals! Veterinary Medicine, 11th Edition provides up-to-date information on the diseases of horses, cattle, sheep, goats, and pigs. Comprehensive coverage includes the principles of clinical examination and making a diagnosis, along with specific therapy recommendations. For easier use, this edition has been divided into two volumes and restructured into a logical, anatomically based approach to disease. From internationally known veterinary experts Peter Constable, Kenneth Hinchcliff, Stanley Done, and Walter Grünberg, this book is the definitive, one-stop reference for farm animal and equine care. Comprehensive coverage includes information essential to any large-animal veterinarian, especially those working with horses, cattle, sheep, goats, or pigs. Coverage of diseases addresses major large-animal diseases of all countries, including foreign animal and emerging diseases. User-friendly format makes it easier to quickly absorb key information. Quick review/synopsis sections make important information on complex diseases easy to find. NEW! Convenient, easy-access format is organized by organ systems, and divides the content into two compact volumes with the same authoritative coverage. Nearly 200 new color photographs and line drawings are included in this edition. NEW full-color design improves navigation, clarifies subject headings, and includes more boxes, tables, and charts for faster reference. New Diseases Primarily Affecting the Reproductive System chapter is added. Updated and expanded chapter on pharmacotherapy lists therapeutic interventions and offers treatment boxes and principles of antibiotic use. Expanded sections on herd health include biosecurity and infection control, and valuable Strength of Evidence boxes. NEW or extensively revised sections include topics such as the Schmallenberg and Bluetongue viral epidemics of ruminants in Europe, Wesselbron disease in cattle, hypokalemia in adult cattle, equine multinodular pulmonary fibrosis, Hendra virus infection, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome, torque teno virus, and numerous recently identified congenital and inherited disorders of large animals. Additional content is provided on lameness in cattle and the diseases of cervids.