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Exposure

By Robert Bilott
  • Writer : Robert Bilott
  • Isbn : 1501172832
  • Publisher : Simon and Schuster
  • Number of Pages : 400
  • Category : Biography & Autobiography
  • Review Counts : 119
  • Book Compatibility : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Pdf : exposure.pdf

Summaries of Book :

“For Erin Brockovich fans, a David vs. Goliath tale with a twist” (The New York Times Book Review)—the incredible true story of the lawyer who spent two decades building a case against DuPont for its use of the hazardous chemical PFOA, uncovering the worst case of environmental contamination in history—affecting virtually every person on the planet—and the conspiracy that kept it a secret for sixty years. The story that inspired Dark Waters, the major motion picture from Focus Features starring Mark Ruffalo and Anne Hathaway, directed by Todd Haynes. 1998: Rob Bilott is a young lawyer specializing in helping big corporations stay on the right side of environmental laws and regulations. Then he gets a phone call from a West Virginia farmer named Earl Tennant, who is convinced the creek on his property is being poisoned by runoff from a neighboring DuPont landfill, causing his cattle and the surrounding wildlife to die in hideous ways. Earl hasn’t even been able to get a water sample tested by any state or federal regulatory agency or find a local lawyer willing to take the case. As soon as they hear the name DuPont—the area’s largest employer—they shut him down. Once Rob sees the thick, foamy water that bubbles into the creek, the gruesome effects it seems to have on livestock, and the disturbing frequency of cancer and other health problems in the area, he’s persuaded to fight against the type of corporation his firm routinely represents. After intense legal wrangling, Rob ultimately gains access to hundreds of thousands of pages of DuPont documents, some of them fifty years old, that reveal the company has been holding onto decades of studies proving the harmful effects of a chemical called PFOA, used in making Teflon. PFOA is often called a “forever chemical,” because once in the environment, it does not break down or degrade for millions of years, contaminating the planet forever. The case of one farmer soon spawns a class action suit on behalf of seventy thousand residents—and the shocking realization that virtually every person on the planet has been exposed to PFOA and carries the chemical in his or her blood. What emerges is a riveting legal drama “in the grand tradition of Jonathan Harr’s A Civil Action” (Booklist, starred review) about malice and manipulation, the failings of environmental regulation; and one lawyer’s twenty-year struggle to expose the truth about this previously unknown—and still unregulated—chemical that we all have inside us.

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Book Excerpt:

In 1991, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) asked the National Research Council (NRC) to provide technical guidance for establishing community emergency exposure levels for extremely hazardous substances (EHSs) pursuant to the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. As a result the NRC published Guidelines for Developing Community Emergency Exposure Levels for Hazardous Substances in 1993 and Standing Operating Procedures for Developing Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Substances in 2001; providing updated procedures, methods, and other guidelines used by the National Advisory Committee (NAC) on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) for hazardous substances for assessing acute adverse health effects. Stemming from this report the NAC has developed AEGLs for at least 270 EHSs. There are currently three AEGLs: AEGL-1, AEGL-2, and AEGL-3. AEGL-1 is the airborne concentration of a substance above which it is predicted that the general population could experience notable discomfort, irritation, or certain asymptomatic nonsensory effects. These effects are not disabling and are transient and reversible once exposure is stopped. AEGL-2 is the airborne concentration (of a substance above which it is predicted that the general population could experience irreversible, long-lasting adverse health effects or an impaired ability to escape. AEGL-3 is the airborne concentration of a substance above which it is predicted that the general population could experience life threatening health effects or death. On April 22-24 2013, the NRC-established Committee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels 2013 met to review AEGL documents approved by the NAC. The committee members were selected for their expertise in toxicology, medicine, industrial hygiene, biostatistics, and risk assessment. Twenty-second Interim Report of the Committee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels presents a review of AEGLs for various chemicals including acrylonitrile, halogen fluorides, tellurium hexafluoride, and thionyl chloride.

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Exposure to tuberculous infection

By Sics Editore
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Exposure

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Carnegie Medalist Mal Peet takes a searing look at the world of soccer and pop-celebrity culture -- and the lives of three street kids caught in its glare. (Age 14 and up) When a black South American soccer star signs on to a team in the country’s racist south, headlines blare. And when he falls for the sensual Desmerelda, a stunning white pop singer and daughter of a wealthy politician, their sudden and controversial marriage propels the pair to center stage, where they burn in the media spotlight. But celebrity attracts enemies; some very close to home. And its dazzle reaches into the city’s hidden corners, exposing a life of grit and desperation the glitterati could never imagine. When a girl is found murdered, reporter Paul Faustino is caught between worlds as he witnesses the power of the media in making -- and breaking -- lives. Inspired by Shakespeare’s OTHELLO, this modern tragedy of desire and betrayal, incisively and compassionately told, is a truly enthralling work of crossover fiction.

Post-Vietnam Dioxin Exposure in Agent Orange-Contaminated C-123 Aircraft

By Institute of Medicine,Board on the Health of Select Populations,Committee to Evaluate the Potential Exposure to Agent Orange/TCDD Residue and Level of Risk of Adverse Health Effects for Aircrew of Post-Vietnam C-123 Aircraft
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  • Pdf File: post-vietnam-dioxin-exposure-in-agent-orange-contaminated-c-123-aircraft.pdf

Book Excerpt:

From 1972 to 1982, approximately 1,500-2,100 US Air Force Reserve personnel trained and worked on C-123 aircraft that had formerly been used to spray herbicides in Vietnam as part of Operation Ranch Hand. After becoming aware that some of the aircraft on which they had worked had previously served this purpose, some of these AF Reservists applied to the US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) for compensatory coverage under the Agent Orange Act of 1991. The Act provides health care and disability coverage for health conditions that have been deemed presumptively service-related for herbicide exposure during the Vietnam War. The VA denied the applications on the basis that these veterans were ineligible because as non-Vietnam-era veterans or as Vietnam-era veterans without "boots on the ground" service in Vietnam, they were not covered. However, with the knowledge that some air and wipe samples taken between 1979 and 2009 from some of the C-123s used in Operation Ranch Hand showed the presence of agent orange residues, representatives of the C-123 Veterans Association began a concerted effort to reverse VA's position and obtain coverage. At the request of the VA, Post-Vietnam Dioxin Exposure in Agent Orange-Contaminated C-123 Aircraft evaluates whether or not service in these C-123s could have plausibly resulted in exposures detrimental to the health of these Air Force Reservists. The Institute of Medicine assembled an expert committee to address this question qualitatively, but in a scientific and evidence-based fashion. This report evaluates the reliability of the available information for establishing exposure and addresses and places in context whether any documented residues represent potentially harmful exposure by characterizing the amounts available and the degree to which absorption might be expected. Post-Vietnam Dioxin Exposure rejects the idea that the dioxin residues detected on interior surfaces of the C-123s were immobile and effectively inaccessible to the Reservists as a source of exposure. Accordingly, this report states with confidence that the Air Force Reservists were exposed when working in the Operation Ranch Hand C-123s and so experienced some increase in their risk of a variety of adverse responses.

Nitrate Contamination

By Istvan Bogardi,Robert D. Kuzelka,Wilma G. Ennenga
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Isbn Code : 3642760406
  • Number of Pages : 520
  • Category : Technology & Engineering
  • Reviews : 797
  • Pdf File: nitrate-contamination.pdf

Book Excerpt:

The nitrate content of drinking water is rising at an alarming rate in several regions of NATO countries and elsewhere in the world. The increase is due to lack of proper sewage treatment, and primarily to excess fertilizer application. Also, eutrophication in several coastal areas is triggered by high nitrate concentrations. The main purpose of this book is to integrate scientific knowledge related to exposure assessment, health consequences and control of nitrate contamination in water. The motivation is related to the magnitude, the possible adverse health effects, and the high cost of control ling nitrate contamination. Future research tasks are defined by an interaction among hydro logists, toxicologists and environmental engineers in an integrated framework for nitrate risk management. The target readership of this book is a mix of university colleagues, practitioners from both the private and public sectors and advanced graduate students working with the hydrological, health science or environmental engineering aspects of nitrate contamination. The main conclusions include: 1. For risk assessment purposes, knowledge and sufficiently accurate models are available to predict nitrate load and its fate in water under changes in land use. 2. Once agricultural exposure controls are implemented, the response times in ground water may be so long as to make controls unrealistic. 3. It is still unknown whether agricultural best management practice is a compromise between nitrate risk reduction and agricultural revenue. 4. The current drinking water guidelines of 10 mg/L NOrN need not be changed.

Air Monitoring for Toxic Exposures

By Henry J. McDermott
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Isbn Code : 047167057X
  • Number of Pages : 688
  • Category : Science
  • Reviews : 791
  • Pdf File: air-monitoring-for-toxic-exposures.pdf

Book Excerpt:

Get the Latest from the Field This book offers ready-to-use information for measuring a widevariety of airborne hazardous materials including chemicals, radon,and bioaerosols. It provides the latest procedures forair sampling, collecting biological and bulk samples, evaluatingdermal exposures, and determining the advantages and limitations ofa given air monitoring method.

Long-Term Health Consequences of Exposure to Burn Pits in Iraq and Afghanistan

By Institute of Medicine,Board on the Health of Select Populations,Committee on the Long-Term Health Consequences of Exposure to Burn Pits in Iraq and Afghanistan
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Isbn Code : 030921758X
  • Number of Pages : 192
  • Category : Medical
  • Reviews : 443
  • Pdf File: long-term-health-consequences-of-exposure-to-burn-pits-in-iraq-and-afghanistan.pdf

Book Excerpt:

Many veterans returning from the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan have health problems they believe are related to their exposure to the smoke from the burning of waste in open-air "burn pits" on military bases. Particular controversy surrounds the burn pit used to dispose of solid waste at Joint Base Balad in Iraq, which burned up to 200 tons of waste per day in 2007. The Department of Veterans Affairs asked the IOM to form a committee to determine the long-term health effects from exposure to these burn pits. Insufficient evidence prevented the IOM committee from developing firm conclusions. This report, therefore, recommends that, along with more efficient data-gathering methods, a study be conducted that would evaluate the health status of service members from their time of deployment over many years to determine their incidence of chronic diseases.

Children and Interparental Violence

By B. B. Robbie Rossman,Honore M. Hughes,Mindy S. Rosenberg
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Isbn Code : 1134872690
  • Number of Pages : 300
  • Category : Psychology
  • Reviews : 528
  • Pdf File: children-and-interparental-violence.pdf

Book Excerpt:

The past decade has seen a burgeoning of research and conceptualization on the implications of parental violence exposure on children's development and well-being. Meanwhile, seemingly daily accounts of violent tragedies committed by our youth brings to our attention the urgency of conveying this information. With these ideas in mind, Children and Interparental Violence focuses on childrens exposure to violence between their caretakers and the subsequent effects on child development. To this end, the authors review current theories, research, and treatment strategies of the 1990s, paying specific attention to families' ethnic backgrounds, parents' sexual orientation, and forensic and legal issues, all factors affecting the nature and severity of impact. Prevention and intervention models (including great detail on risk and protective factors), techniques, and programs are discussed, as well as research evaluating their usefulness. Keeping in mind the goal of integrating practice and policy with current violence and developmental research and theory, numerous case examples take the reader from the lab and classroom into the session room and courtroom.

Respiratory Disease and the Risk of Exposure to Dust. A Case Control Study at a Local Hospital

By Leonard Kabongo
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : GRIN Verlag
  • Isbn Code : 3668037221
  • Number of Pages : 11
  • Category : Health & Fitness
  • Reviews : 551
  • Pdf File: respiratory-disease-and-the-risk-of-exposure-to-dust-a-case-control-study-at-a-local-hospital.pdf

Book Excerpt:

Research Paper (undergraduate) from the year 2015 in the subject Health Science, grade: B, University of Manchester (HCRI), course: Global Health, language: English, abstract: At a local Hospital, an increased number of people admitted and treated for Respiratory Disease have been observed and most of them work at a local Factory. There is a concern that the dust generated by the machinery at the Company would be the contributing factor. A Case Control Study will be conducted on the Incidence of respiratory disease to prove or disapprove the association between the incident cases of respiratory disease and the exposure to the dust generated by the factory. The Research Protocol is adapted from the World Health Organization proposed study protocol format (WHO, 2014). The protocol will state the problem and the hypothesis generated to be tested, the aim and objectives to be achieved and the current knowledge on the topic in a literature review. A thorough explanation on the choice of the study design, methodology and sampling will be preceded by the study outcome and its measurement methods. Data collection and analysis using statistical methods with the potential sources of bias are elaborated. A discussion highlighting the pros and cons of this study as well as the study limitations are explained. A conclusive summary and Ethic statements followed by a list of References will shape the end of this study.

Managing Health Effects of Beryllium Exposure

By National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology,Committee on Toxicology,Committee on Beryllium Alloy Exposures
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Isbn Code : 9780309178013
  • Number of Pages : 186
  • Category : Medical
  • Reviews : 370
  • Pdf File: managing-health-effects-of-beryllium-exposure.pdf

Book Excerpt:

Beryllium is a lightweight metal that is used for its exceptional strength and high heat-absorbing capability. Beryllium and its alloys can be found in many important technologies in the defense and aeronautics industries, such as nuclear devices, satellite systems, radar systems, and aircraft bushings and bearings. Pulmonary disease associated with exposure to beryllium has been recognized and studied since the early 1940s, and an occupational guideline for limiting exposure to beryllium has been in place since 1949. Over the last few decades, much has been learned about chronic beryllium disease and factors that contribute to its occurrence in exposed people. Despite reduced workplace exposure, chronic beryllium disease continues to occur. Those developments have led to debates about the adequacy of the long-standing occupational exposure limit for protecting worker health. This book, requested by the U.S. Air Force to help to determine the steps necessary to protect its workforce from the effects of beryllium used in military aerospace applications, reviews the scientific literature on beryllium and outlines an exposure and disease management program for its protecting workers.

The Practice of Consumer Exposure Assessment

By Gerhard Heinemeyer,Matti Jantunen,Pertti Hakkinen
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Isbn Code : 3319961489
  • Number of Pages : 584
  • Category : Medical
  • Reviews : 444
  • Pdf File: the-practice-of-consumer-exposure-assessment.pdf

Book Excerpt:

This book closes a current gap by providing the scientific basis for consumer exposure assessment in the context of regulatory risk assessment. Risk is defined as the likelihood of an event occurring and the severity of its effects. The margin between the dose that leads to toxic effects and the actual dose of a chemical is identified by estimating population exposure. The objective of this book is to provide an introduction into the scientific principles of consumer exposure assessment, and to describe the methods used to estimate doses of chemicals, the statistics applied and computer tools needed. This is presented through the backgrounds of the special fields in exposure analysis, such as exposure via food and by the use of consumer products, toys, clothing and other items. As a general concept, human exposure is also understood to include exposure via the environment and from the work setting. In this context, the specific features of consumer exposure are pointed out and put into the context of regulation, in particular food safety, chemicals safety (REACh) and consumer product safety. The book is structured into three parts: The first part deals with the general concepts of consumer exposure as part of the overall risk analysis framework of risk characterization, risk assessment and risk communication. It describes the three basic features of exposure assessment (i) the exposure scenario (ii) the exposure model and (iii) the exposure parameters, addressing external and internal exposure. Also, the statistical presentation of data to characterize populations, in connection with variability, uncertainty and quality of information and the presentation of exposure evaluation results is described. The second part deals with the specific issues of exposure assessment, exposure via food consumption, exposure from use of consumer products, household products, toys, cosmetic products, textiles, pesticides and others. This part also covers methods for acquisition of data for exposure estimations, including the relevant information from regulations needed to perform an accurate exposure assessment. The third part portrays a prospect for further needs in the development and improvement of consumer exposure assessment, as well as international activities and descriptions of the work of institutions that are involved in exposure assessment on the regulatory and scientific level. And conversely, it creates the rationale for the exposure assessment details necessary to satisfy regulatory needs such as derivation of upper limits and risk management issues.

Exposure

By Kathy Reichs,Brendan Reichs
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Penguin
  • Isbn Code : 0698149629
  • Number of Pages : 432
  • Category : Juvenile Fiction
  • Reviews : 770
  • Pdf File: exposure.pdf

Book Excerpt:

“If you like the TV show Bones (I do) or Maximum Ride, you’ll love Virals.”—James Patterson Another thrilling Virals adventure from New York Times bestsellers Kathy and Brendan Reichs. When twin classmates are abducted from Bolton Prep, Tory and the Virals decide there’s no one better equipped than them to investigate. But the gang has other problems to face. Their powers are growing wilder, and becoming harder to control. Chance Claybourne is investigating the disastrous medical experiment that twisted their DNA. The bonds that unite them are weakening, threatening the future of the pack itself. The Virals must decipher the clues and track down a ruthless criminal before he strikes again, all while protecting their secret from prying eyes. And everyone seems to be watching.

Spacecraft Water Exposure Guidelines for Selected Contaminants

By National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology,Committee on Toxicology,Committee on Spacecraft Exposure Guidelines
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Isbn Code : 9780309180078
  • Number of Pages : 534
  • Category : Science
  • Reviews : 276
  • Pdf File: spacecraft-water-exposure-guidelines-for-selected-contaminants.pdf

Book Excerpt:

The International Space Station is a closed and complex environment, so some contamination of its internal atmosphere and water system is expected. To protect space crews from contaminants in potable and hygiene water, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) requested that the National Research Council (NRC) provide guidance on how to develop water exposure guidelines and review NASA’s development of the exposure guidelines for specific chemicals. NASA selects water contaminants for which spacecraft water exposure guidelines (SWEGs) will be established; this involves identifying toxicity effects relevant to astronauts and calculating exposure concentrations on the basis of those end points. SWEGs are established for exposures of 1, 10, 100, and 1,000 days. This report is the second volume in the series, Spacecraft Water Exposure Guidelines for Selected Chemicals. SWEG reports for acetone, alkylamines, ammonia, barium, cadmium, caprolactam, formate, formaldehyde, manganese, total organic carbon, and zinc are included in this report. The committee concludes that the SWEGs developed for these chemicals are scientifically valid based on the data reviewed by NASA and are consistent with the NRC (2000) report, Methods for Developing Spacecraft Water Exposure Guidelines. SWEG reports for additional chemicals will be presented in a subsequent volume.

Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation

By Committee to Assess Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation,National Research Council
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Isbn Code : 0309133343
  • Number of Pages : 389
  • Category : Science
  • Reviews : 511
  • Pdf File: health-risks-from-exposure-to-low-levels-of-ionizing-radiation.pdf

Book Excerpt:

This book is the seventh in a series of titles from the National Research Council that addresses the effects of exposure to low dose LET (Linear Energy Transfer) ionizing radiation and human health. Updating information previously presented in the 1990 publication, Health Effects of Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR V, this book draws upon new data in both epidemiologic and experimental research. Ionizing radiation arises from both natural and man-made sources and at very high doses can produce damaging effects in human tissue that can be evident within days after exposure. However, it is the low-dose exposures that are the focus of this book. So-called “late” effects, such as cancer, are produced many years after the initial exposure. This book is among the first of its kind to include detailed risk estimates for cancer incidence in addition to cancer mortality. BEIR VII offers a full review of the available biological, biophysical, and epidemiological literature since the last BEIR report on the subject and develops the most up-to-date and comprehensive risk estimates for cancer and other health effects from exposure to low-level ionizing radiation.

Treating Your OCD with Exposure and Response (Ritual) Prevention Therapy

By Elna Yadin,Edna B. Foa,Tracey K. Lichner
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Isbn Code : 0190240709
  • Number of Pages : 80
  • Category : Psychology
  • Reviews : 530
  • Pdf File: treating-your-ocd-with-exposure-and-response.pdf

Book Excerpt:

An estimated 2-3% of the population is affected by obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This is a chronic condition that significantly affects daily functioning and quality of life. Many people with OCD would greatly benefit from receiving professional help to learn how to successfully manage this debilitating condition. This workbook aims to guide patients of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in how to best benefit from the treatment provided by their therapists. Treatments addressed in this publication include exposure and ritual (response) prevention, an effective, evidence-based treatment for this disorder. Designed to be used in conjunction with its companion therapist guide titled Exposure and Ritual (Response) Prevention for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, this Workbook includes an exposure and ritual prevention treatment program which is broken down into 17 - 20 biweekly treatment sessions. During these sessions the patient will be gradually exposed to situations and places that trigger his or her OCD symptoms. The goal is that over time the OCD sufferer comes to realize that the things he or she fears will not necessarily occur if the rituals are not performed. Some exposures will be supervised by the therapist, but the workbook can help the patient to practice on their own at home in order to overcome some of the barriers and difficulties that are part and parcel of every treatment.

Controlling Occupational Exposure to Bloodborne Pathogens in Acute Care Facilities, Dentistry, Emergency Responders, and Long-Term Care Workers

By DIANE Publishing Company
  • File : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : DIANE Publishing
  • Isbn Code : 0788123246
  • Number of Pages : 110
  • Category :
  • Reviews : 509
  • Pdf File: controlling-occupational-exposure-to-bloodborne-pathogens-in-acute-care-facilities-dentistry-emergency-responders-and-long-term-care-workers.pdf

Book Excerpt:

Covers: exposure control plan, who has occupational exposure, communicating hazards to employees, preventive measures (hepatitis B Vaccination; universal precautions), methods of control (engineering & work practice controls; personal protective equipment; housekeeping procedures; labeling), what to do if an exposure incident occurs, recordkeeping, HIV & HBV research laboratories & production facilities. Illustrated.